DEFINITIONS

Remember the creation of the world:

The command of Shabbat is divine: "... In six days, Gd made the heavens and the earth and on the seventh day He 'rested" (Chemot - Exodus 3117).

Remember the departure from Egypt:

The practice of Shabbat reminds us of the miraculous departure of the Jews from Egypt, they were released only to serve Gd through the practice of mitvos. By moving away from worldly occupations, Jews enjoy Shabbat spiritually, by studying Torah and physically. So we experience the response and the freedom gained from the exodus.

Extra soul:

Every Shabbat, Gd grants us neshamah yeshamah, one more soul for the day. We take care of this soul by studying Torah, increasing our prayers and fulfilling the Shabbat mitvos. The physical appreciation of the day is only intended to involve the body in the mitzvah.

The Honor of Shabbat:

Shabbat should be honored by dressing and placing the table in an aligned manner. So we should wash and prepare everything on Thursday so that they are ready for Shabbat. We also honor Shabbat with candelabra and festive foods.

Enjoy Shabbat:

We must make Shabbat pleasant with food and drink, as well as meat, fish and wine. This mitzvah by oneg Shabbos also says that we should give up thoughts of work and other concerns, have a sense of accomplishment.

Shabbat candles:

Before Shabbat, women must light at least two candles; one to remember (Exodus 20: 8) and one to observe (Deuteronomy 5:12). In most communities, after lighting them, the woman blindfolds and speaks the blessings “Whoever sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us to ascend the light of the sacred Shabbat”. It is forbidden to work during the Shabbat period. Updating a custom that is prevalent in many communities, Lubavitcher Rebbe, who has a long life, invited all girls under the age of three to light a candle and speak blessings. Daughters must light up before their mothers. It is customary to put some money in a box for charity before lighting the candles.

Sanctification:

Kidush, prays to Gd for the sanctity of Shabbat, is recited over wine before Shabbat meals in the evening and in the morning. The Kidush of the night consists of two blessings, while the morning is basically composed of just one, “Creator of the fruit of the vine”.

Three Meals:

The person must eat at least three meals during Shabbat. One meal on Shabbat night, corresponding to Abrahão, one on Shabbat day, corresponding to Isaac, and one between the afternoon and evening services, corresponding to Jacob.

Double bread:

The blessing "Who brings the room (bread)" was said on lechem mishneh, two leaves, at Shabbat meals and religious festivals. These leaves resemble the double portion of manna received by the Israelites on Friday in the desert - one portion for that day and the other for Shabbat, when no manna came down.

Be grateful (or please) and strengthen us:

"Retzei", the passage affirms the sanctity of Shabbat, inserted in the blessing "... Creator of Jerusalem" in grace after the meals of Shabbat.

Creator of the fire lights:

This blessing, part of Havdalah, is said on a lighted candle to commemorate the creation of the fire after the first Shabbat, when Adam rubbed two stones. This blessing is also said after Yom Kippur.

Creator of the spice variety:

This blessing, part of Havdalah, is said before smelling spices. Our Blessed Sages ordered spices to be smelled at the end of Shabbat to encourage us to lose our extra souls.

Accompanying the Queen:

Melaveh malkah, a meal eaten before Shabbat, is our way of saying goodbye to the Shabbat Queen. This meal is also called the meal of David, the Messianic King.

The thirty-nine job categories:

As the Torah juxtaposes the commandments to rest on Shabbat and that of building a sanctuary, our Sages, with blessed memory, deduced that the lamed tes melachos used in construction is prohibited on Shabbat. Other works, known as tolados (literally "generations") and subcategories are also prohibited because of their similarity to the thirty-nine major works.

Isolate:

Muktzeh refers to objects that should not be moved during Shabbat, as well as tools, writing objects, money, etc. When observing these objects, just as their use is prohibited during Shabbat, they are intrinsically prohibited, their disappearance or misuse can cause financial losses, they are out of the question, or serve as a basis for something prohibited.

The four Shabbat domains:

These are:

  1. Private property

  2. Public Property

  3. Neither public nor private property

  4. An exempt location

On Shabbat the Jew must not take anything from public to private property and vice versa, just as he cannot carry anything from four cubits in public. According to the Bible, a Karmelis has the same status as an exempt place, but Rabbinically, we treat it as a public place, carrying it only when there is an eiruv (see the next topic). Shabbat laws define the four properties and their laws.

The 39 “jobs” banned on Shabbat

Just consult the Torah itself to recognize the spirit that governs the prohibition of work. In Exodus XXXV, 1-4, after introducing the subject concerning the making of the Tabernacle, the Torah stops to inculcate the observance of Shabbat before resuming the thread. The meaning of this interruption and interleaving can only be as follows:

However important the construction of the Tabernacle, “the noblest product of human activity,” when Shabbat approaches, this construction and all the work it entails must cease. A similar observation is made regarding the passage from Exodus XXXI, 12-18.

Consequently, all work necessary for the construction and organization of the Tabernacle is prohibited (Shabbat, 70a). The number of these works is 39. They are established by the Oral Law that immediately followed the Written Law (the Pentateuch).

THE GARDEN OF EDEN

Gd chose the most beautiful place on earth, called Eden: there He planted a garden. The most tasty and delicious fruits grew on the trees of this charming garden.

In the center of the garden Gd planted two special trees. One was called the Tree of Life. If someone ate the fruit of that tree, they would live forever. The second was the so-called Tree of Knowledge. If someone ate its fruits it would become intelligent and extremely smart.

Gd placed Adam and Eve, the first two people on earth, in this beautiful Garden of Eden to live there and take care of the garden. Gd said to them, "You can eat the fruit of all the trees in the garden - but not of the tree of Knowledge, lest they die!"

Gd didn't want them to eat from that tree because he knew that they would use their intelligence to hurt themselves, not only to themselves but to others.

Adam and Eve would have lived happily in the garden had it not been for the snake. The Serpent, who was the most intelligent and smart animal, went to speak to Eva. She spoke shrewdly and persuaded her to eat the fruit of the tree of Knowledge. Eve could not resist the temptation and ate the tasty fruit that Gd had forbidden her to eat. And not only did he eat, he gave some to Adam, who also ate the fruit. Gd then called Adam and asked him, "Why did you eat the forbidden fruit?"

Adam made an excuse - Eve gave me the fruit to eat; and Eva said it was the snake's fault, which persuaded her to do so.

That is why Gd punished the Serpent, Eve and Adam. He told Serpente Gd that from that day on he could only move by crawling on his abdomen, and that there would be a perpetual hatred between snakes and human beings.

Eva's punishment was having to suffer, and raising her children with pain and difficulties.

And Adam said to Gd: “Because you have not obeyed My commandment, you will have to work and labor with all your strength to make the land produce for you, until your death and return to the land from which you were created . ”

As an additional punishment, Adam and Eve were expelled from the Garden of Eden. They could no longer stay in the beautiful garden or live free from the fruits of the beautiful trees. Now they would have to work the soil to get their food

***

How good Gd had been with Adam and Eve! He had made a wonderful garden for them. He had given them every opportunity to live happy and content. But they disobeyed Gd's only commandment and in doing so brought great concerns to themselves. Instead of living peacefully in the garden, now they would have to toil and suffer forever. What a lesson for us! If we obey the Divine commandments, we can be happy and be content, as is Gd's desire for us. But woe to us if we disobey Gd's laws! Then we will bring big problems, for ourselves and for others. Let us beware of the “snake” within us and not be fooled by its cunning temptations!

THE CREATION OF THE WORLD

We all know that it was Gd who created our formidable world, with its powerful oceans, high mountains and immense continents, full of different types of plants, animals and birds. Let's learn the order in which Gd accomplished all of this, in just six days.

In the beginning Gd made the heavens and the earth. On the first day, when everything was chaos and darkness, Gd created the LIGHT and He separated the light from the darkness.

On the second day, the Almighty formed the Heavens.

When dawn dawned on the third day, Gd said: “May the waters of the earth come together in certain places that will be called Seas and Oceans. Then the land, the dry land, will appear. ” And as He commanded, so it was. The many waterways in the world and all the good land were now clearly visible. That same day, at the request of Gd, all kinds of plants and trees began to spring up from the earth. The smallest herbs, the most beautiful flowers, the most majestic trees, everything was created on the third day.

Now that the earth was no longer in chaos, Gd returned again to heaven. On the fourth day, He made the celestial bodies: the SUN, the MOON, and the stars. They would give light to the land day and night.

On the fifth day the fish and all the other creatures that live in the water were created. Gd also created on the fifth day, all our winged friends, the birds.

Now the sixth day of Creation has arrived. First Gd created everything that lives and moves on the earth. And what varieties there were! Insects and reptiles and all kinds of animals. Flies and grasshoppers, snakes and worms, horses and dogs, elephants and lions, and a million other living creatures.

Finally and most importantly, Gd created MAN. Man was unlike anything else on earth, Gd breathed a divine soul into Man's body.

Gd then made a woman, a wife for Adam, after the first man. The woman was created to be an aid to the Man, in his own life and in the life of the whole world. Adam called his wife Eve, which means in Hebrew 'the mother of all living things.'

Gd blessed Adam and Eve as follows: "Multiply and dominate everything in this world".

At the end of the sixth day, the world and everything in it was complete. Gd blessed the seventh day and declared it a day of rest because on this day He had finished creating the world and rested. The name of the seventh day, Shabbat, means, in Hebrew, rest.

***

When we obey the laws of the Sabbath rest, we are showing that we realize that Gd, and Him alone, created our world. So the commandment to observe Shabbat is one of the greatest and most important of our laws.

***

When reading the story of Creation, we see that Gd created everything in the world first and only when everything was ready, He created Man.

When we invite an important person into our home, we first arrange everything. The house is an earring. We put soft chairs, bright lights and beautiful pictures in the guest room. We plan delicious dishes for him. When he finally arrives, he finds everything in place for his comfort. And he is very grateful!

The Man treated the Man and the Woman as guests of honor on earth and everything was arranged for your comfort. Gd, Himself, considers Man to be important and worthy of care. Let us show our thanks to Gd for His goodness. We will try, through our actions, to show that we appreciate the wonderful world that He has given us. Let us, through our conduct, always try to deserve Gd's love and care! We will be grateful guests on earth!

The 39 “jobs” banned on Shabbat

Just consult the Torah to recognize the spirit that governs the prohibition of work. In Exodus XXXV, 1-4, after introducing the subject concerning the making of the Tabernacle (the Mishkan), the Torah interrupts itself to inculcate the observance of Shabbat before resuming the thread. The meaning of this interruption and interleaving can only be as follows:

However important the construction of the Tabernacle, “the noblest product of human activity,” when Shabbat approaches, this construction and all the work it entails must cease. A similar observation is made regarding the passage from Exodus XXXI, 12-18.

Consequently, all work necessary for the construction and organization of the Tabernacle is prohibited (Shabbat, 70a). The number of these “works” is 39. They are established by the Oral Law that immediately followed the Written Law (the Pentateuch).

THE REST OF SHABAT

Friday night, after the delicious meal, Jacob approached his grandfather who was sitting, as usual, with an open Chumash.

"Can I ask you a question, grandpa?"

“Of course, Jacob; sit here and ask what you want and come to your mind. ”

“Grandpa, I’m never sure what a Jew can and cannot do on Shabbat. They do not say that Shabbat is a day of rest; so I don't understand why it is forbidden to do things that do not tire at all? For example knitting. Mom says that when she knits she always feels so rested! But she also told me that knitting on Shabbat is prohibited. Could the Lord tell me more about Shabbat? What things can and cannot be done and why? ”

"Delighted, my boy," replied the grandfather; and went on. “As you know, Gd created the entire universe in six days and rested on the seventh. Then He proclaimed the seventh day of the week a holy day of rest. Was Gd really tired of His creation work? Of course not! But by stopping all the work of creation before the seventh day, Gd showed man the way to live. Gd wants man to have a special life, far beyond the life of any other creature that He created. ”

After resting to breathe, Grandpa continued: “Man is a wise and intelligent being and must be a living memorial for the work of Creation. How can man witness the fact that Gd created Heaven and Earth?

“We do this by interrupting work on Holy Shabbat day and keeping it in the way that Gd has commanded us to keep Holy Shabbat. Every Jewish store, every Shabbat deal or sale, proclaims in a good tone to the whole world that Gd created the world in six days. That is exactly what Gd wants us to do.

“For us Jews, Shabbat is therefore more than a day of rest. We don't need to be tired to enjoy it or keep it. For us Jews, Shabbat is a day dedicated to Gd, a day completely different from other days of the week.

“Shabbat is different with respect to everything, in every detail. Our clothing, the blessing of food, our own walking and speaking, even our thoughts: it has a distinctive mark on everything, on Shabbat. Everything related to our daily life, our business, work, our sports and recreation, is simply banned for twenty-four hours or a little longer. On Shabbat the Jew lives in a whole new world, a holy and pure world, in spirit. This is what we mean when we speak of 'Neshamá Ieterá', the 'soul of Shabbat' that distinguishes the Jew.

"Now I am beginning to understand, but please continue grandpa," said Jacob. And the grandfather continued.

“This will give you some idea of why the Jew cannot do things on Shabbat that are harmless in themselves and seemingly of little significance, such as holding money, tearing paper, smoking, using any means of transport, from an airplane to a bus, go to the cinema, play ball, carry anything outside or inside the house, etc. It is especially forbidden to do any creative work, such as writing, drawing and, of course, knitting, sewing, mending, cooking, baking, etc.

"I'm running out of breath, Jacob, but I haven't talked about everything yet."

“I know, Grandpa, I can mention a few more things. For example, we cannot turn on any kind of light. We can't strike a match, turn on an electric light or gas. ”

"It is, indeed, but there are many, many more things to learn."

"You know, Grandpa, I think that after Shabbat I will make a picture with all the things that are not allowed to be done on Shabbat and that I remember."

“Good idea, my boy. Let me give you some advice. If you are ever in doubt about something, don't be ashamed to ask your father, your teacher, your rabbi, or even me. A shy person doesn't learn much, our books say. ”

“I will always ask, Grandpa, but I am afraid to give you a lot of work! But now I hear mom calling me. Good Shabbat, and thank you very much ”.